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State of the art in machine-processing of licensing information

by taspel | November 09, 2016

Most of the work done in the area of relevance is situated in the context of digital rights management systems and often associated with issues like contracting.[1],[2],[3] Little attention has so far been paid to the issue of license compatibility and reasoning over machine-readable licensing information. An interesting proposal for a generic logic for reasoning over the licenses is provided by Pucella and Weissman[4], but it has not been implemented with existing RELs like ODRL or MPEG-21 nor has it been evaluated in practice. Garcia at al.[5],[6],[7] propose an OWL ontology to describe copyright issues in closed datasets for rights clearance purposes. Their approach is based on an old version of the ODRL vocabulary and has not been tested against real world scenarios. Thus, it constitutes a proof of concept, but has not been implemented and tested against issues arising from contemporary open data licensing (see section 1.2). Villata and Gandon[8] and Governatori et al.[9] describe the formalisation of a license composition tool for derivative works. They extend their research by introducing semantics based on deontic logic.[10],[11],[12] These works use a subsumption approach for the comparison of the requirements, permissions and prohibitions of given licenses and derive new licenses out of them. This line of work is an interesting approach to detect and potentially solve licensing conflicts by composing a new license. The pitfall of their approach lies in the circumstance that an automatically composed license might result in logically correct but practically useless license, i.e. because its conditions are too strict or the machine-readable representation does not conform to human-readable deeds. [1] Prenafeta, J. (2010). Protecting Copyright Through Semantic Technology. Publishing Research Quarterly, 26(4), 249–254. [2] Rodriguez-Doncel, V., & Delgado, J. (2009). A Media Value Chain Ontology for MPEG-21. IEEE Multimedia, 16(4), 44–51. http://doi.org/10.1109/MMUL.2009.78 [3] Rodriguez, E., Delgado, J., Boch, L., & Rodriguez-Doncel, V. (2015). Media Contract Formalization Using a Standardized Contract Expression Language. IEEE MultiMedia, 22(2), 64–74. http://doi.org/10.1109/MMUL.2014.22 [4] Pucella, R., & Weissman, V. (2002). A Logic for Reasoning about Digital Rights. In Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Workshop on Computer Security Foundations (p. 282–294). Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society. [5] García, R., & Gil, R. (2009). Copyright Licenses Reasoning an OWL-DL Ontology. In Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Law, Ontologies and the Semantic Web: Channelling the Legal Information Flood (p. 145–162). Amsterdam: IOS Press. [6] García, R., Gil, R., & Delgado, J. (2007). A web ontologies framework for digital rights management. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 15(2), 137–154. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10506-007-9032-6 [7] García, R., Gil, R., & Delgado, J. (2004). Intellectual Property Rights Management Using a Semantic Web Information System. In R. Meersman & Z. Tari (Hrsg.), On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2004: CoopIS, DOA, and ODBASE (Bd. 3290, S. 689–704). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Abgerufen von http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-540-30468-5_44 [8] Villata, S. and Gandon, F. (2012). Licenses compatibility and composition in the web of data. In: COLD - Workshop in conjunction with the 11th International Semantic Web Conference 2012. CEUR WS Proceedings, 905. [9] Governatori, G., Lam, H.-P., Rotolo, A., Villata, S., Auguste Atemezing, G., & Gandon, F. (2014). LIVE: a Tool for Checking Licenses Compatibility between Vocabularies and Data (Bd. 1272). Abgerufen von https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01076619 [10] Rotolo, A., Villata, S., & Gandon, F. (2013). A Deontic Logic Semantics for Licenses Composition in the Web of Data. In Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (S. 111–120). New York, NY, USA: ACM. [11] Guido, G., Ho-Pun, L., Antonino, R., Serena, V., & Fabien, G. (2013). Heuristics for Licenses Composition. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, 77–86. [12] Cabrio, E., Palmero Aprosio, A., & Villata, S. (2014). These Are Your Rights. In V. Presutti, C. d’Amato, F. Gandon, M. d’Aquin, S. Staab, & A. Tordai (Hrsg.), The Semantic Web: Trends and Challenges (Bd. 8465, S. 255–269). Cham: Springer International Publishing. http://doi:10.1007/978-3-319-07443-6_18

Picture: By NASA (Great Images in NASA Description) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


ODRL, reasoning, rights expression language


Licensing Technologies, Machine Processing, Rights Expression Language